Geothermal energy overview

Chapter from Annual report 2020.

5. Geothermal Energy

5.1 Preface geothermal energy

In 2020 18 new applications for exploration licences for geothermal energy were filed. As at 1st of January 2021 a total of 31 geothermal energy exploration licences were in the process of application. In 2020 10 geothermal exploration licences were awarded and one application for an expliration licence was rejected. One exploration licence was split and one was spatially restricted. Two exploration licences were merged into one exploration licence. Further, for 11 geothermal exploration licences the licence period was extended and 5 licences were expired, withdrawn or relinquished. Three exploration licences have lapsed due to the granting of a production licence for geothermal energy. As at 1 January 2021 60 geothermal energy exploration licences were in force (see Figure 5.1).

In 2020 3 new applications for a production licence for geothermal energy were submitted. One of the four pre-2020 applications was withdrawn in 2020 and three production licences were awarded, resulting in a total of 3 standing applications. On the first of January 2021 25 geothermal production licences were in force (see Figure 5.1).

Changes in the licence position in 2020 of geothermal energy exploration and production licences are listed in the tables of Chapter 8. Figure 5.1 shows the evolution of the Dutch geothermal licence position. In the histogram of year 2020 the number of licence applications is presented as well.

 

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Figure 5.1 Number of licences for geothermal energy in force per year. For the year 2020 the number of applications is presented as well.

 

5.2 Geothermal wells and production installations as at 1 January 2021

In 2020 7 geothermal wells were completed (see Table 5.1 and Figure 5.2). These concern wells within the licences Oostvoorne, Naaldwijk II and Luttlegeest II. Realising these wells increased the number of geothermal production installations in the Netherlands by three.

As at 1 January 2021 there were a total of 28 geothermal production installations, of which the Mijnwater Energiecentrale Heerlen installation is actually a heat/cold storage facility and as such will not be included in the following overview. The other 27 geothermal installations (will) produce heat from the deep subsurface. In general, these installations are named doublets as they consist of two wells. One well produces warm water from the aquifer and after extracting the heat, the second well injects the cooled water back down into the same aquifer. Twenty of these 27 geothermal production installations were operational with reference to the fact that they provide (energy) production figures according to art. 111 and 119 of the Mining Decree. All of the operational installations operate under a formal production licence (as at 1 January 2021). At the end of 2020 all not yet producing operators owned a formal production licence or had applied for one.

 

Table 5.1 Geothermal wells completed in 2020.

 

Name of well

Geothermal energy licence

Operator

1

LTG-GT-04

Luttelgeest II

Aardwarmte Combinatie Luttelgeest B.V.

2

LTG-GT-05

Luttelgeest II

Aardwarmte Combinatie Luttelgeest B.V.

3

LTG-GT-06

Luttelgeest II

Aardwarmte Combinatie Luttelgeest B.V.

4

TNT-GT-01

Oostvoorne

Hydreco Geomec B.V.

5

TNT-GT-02

Oostvoorne

Hydreco Geomec B.V.

6

NLW-GT-03

Naaldwijk II

Trias Westland B.V.

7

NLW-GT-04

Naaldwijk II

Trias Westland B.V.

 

 

 

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Figure 5.2 Number of geothermal wells completed (side-tracks excluded) per calendar year and number of installations completed since 2007.

 

The heat is produced from depth intervals between 700 and 2800 meter and from various geological units (Figure 5.3a and b). The depth of the mid of the producing zone is displayed in Figure 5.3 b. Most of the geothermal energy is produced from rocks from the Upper-Jurassic and Lower-Cretaceous strata in the southwest of the Netherlands. Two installations in the southwest of the Netherlands produce from strata of Triassic age. The eight production installations in Noord-Holland, Overijssel and Flevoland produce from Rotliegend strata, whereas two installations in North-Limburg produced heat from Lower Carboniferous to Devonian strata. One geothermal energy production installation in Noord-Brabant produces water from an aquifer pertaining to the Lower North Sea Group.

The heat produced is predominantly used to heat commercial greenhouses. One project also supplies heat to a public utility facility and several buildings. Another project will supply heat to a district heating network in an urban area (Figure 5.3 c).

 

a) Stratigraphy of the productive interval

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b) Depth to mid of aquifer

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c) Uses of the heat produced

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Figure 5.3. a) Stratigraphy of the productive interval, b) Depth to mid of aquifer, c) Uses of the heat produced.

5.3 Production of geothermal energy in 2020

Of the 27 geothermal installations (Mijnwater Energiecentrale Heerlen excluded) 20 were operational in 2020 (Table 5.2). This is one less than in 2019 because one system is temporarily closed in the course of 2019 and did not re-start in 2020. The operational installations have submitted the obligatory monthly production figures. Of the 7 remaining non-operational installations 2 were temporarily closed in and 3 were in the start-up phase. The other 2 non-operational geothermal energy production installations were shut down in 2018 as a consequence of agreements and safety policy in force. Further research into induced seismicity has to show whether future production of these two geothermal installations can continue or can be utilised for other purposes within the set safety standards.

 

Table 5.2 Geothermal installations.

 

Name geothermal energy installation

Wells

Geothermal energy licence

Operational in 2020

1

Californië Geothermie

CAL-GT-1,2&3

Californië IV

No, shut down in May-18

2

De Lier Geothermie

LIR-GT-1&2

De Lier

Yes

3

Honselersdijk Geothermie

HON-GT-1&2

Honselersdijk

Yes

4

Installation Berkel en Rodenrijs

VDB-GT-3&4

Bleiswijk-1b

No

5

Installation Bleiswijk

VDB-GT-1&2

Bleiswijk

Yes

6

Koekoekspolder Geothermie

KKP-GT-1&2

Kampen

Yes

7

Mijnwater Energiecentrale Heerlen

HLH-G-1&2

Heerlen

Yes, WKO

8

Pijnacker-Nootdorp Geothermie

PNA-GT-5&6

Pijnacker-Nootdorp-4

yes

9

Pijnacker-Nootdorp Zuid Geothermie

PNA-GT-3&4

Pijnacker-Nootdorp-5

Yes

10

-

HAG-GT-1&2

Den Haag

No

11

Heemskerk Geothermie

HEK-GT-1&2

Heemskerk

Yes

12

MDM-GT-02 /MDM-GT-05

MDM-GT-2&5

Middenmeer I

Yes

13

MDM-GT-04 / MDM-GT-03

MDM-GT-3&4

Middenmeer II

Yes

14

Vierpolders Geothermie

BRI-GT-1&2

Vierpolders

Yes

15

Californië Lipzig Gielen

CAL-GT-4&5

Californië-V

No, shut down in aug-18

16

Poeldijk Geothermie

PLD-GT-1&2

Poeldijk

Yes

17

Kwintsheul Geothermie

KHL-GT-1&2

Kwintsheul II

Yes

18

Lansingerland Geothermie

LSL-GT-1&2

Lansingerland

Yes

19

MDM-GT-06 / MDM-GT-01

MDM-GT-6&1

Middenmeer I

Yes

20

Maasland Geothermie

MLD-GT-1&2

Maasland

Yes

21

Naaldwijk Geothermie

NLW-GT-1&2

Naaldwijk

Yes

22

Zevenbergen Geothermie

ZVB-GT-1&2

Zevenbergen

Yes

23

Andijk-GT-01/02

ADK-GT-1&2

Andijk

Yes

24

Andijk-GT-03/04

ADK-GT-3&4

Andijk

Yes

25

Luttelgeest Geothermie 1

LTG-GT-1,2&3

Luttelgeest

Yes

26

-

LTG-GT-4,5&6

Luttelgeest II

No

27

-

TNT-GT-1&2

Oostvoorne

No

28

-

NLW-GT-3&4

Naaldwijk II

No

 

 

 

 

image-20210623095407-6

Figure 5.4 Monthly production of geothermal energy in terajoules and the number of geothermal energy production installations contributing to the reported production (Mijnwater Energiecentrale Heerlen excluded).

 

Figure 5.4 shows the aggregated production figures of geothermal energy per month in TJ (x1012 Joule) and the number of installations contributing to the monthly total. Not all installations were operational throughout the year. The cumulative reported annual production is 6.20 PJ (1 PJ = 1015 J) in 2020 (Figure 5.5).

 

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Figure 5.5 Annual production of geothermal energy (PJ/year) and number of operating geothermal systems.

 

Small amounts of natural gas are co-produced with the geothermal energy (Figure 5.6). Under subsurface reservoir conditions (elevated pressure and temperature) the gas is dissolved in the formation water and released when the pressure of the production water in the production installation falls below the ‘bubble point’. Table 5.3 gives an overview of the produced geothermal energy, co-produced gas and co-produced oil per year since 2008. Only in one installation oil was co-produced until March 2017.

 

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Figure 5.6 Volumes of hydrocarbons co-produced with geothermal energy. Gas in 1000 Nm3.

 

Table 5.3 Overview of produced geothermal energy, co-produced gas and co-produced oil.

Year

Produced geothermal energy

(TJ)

Co-produced gas

(x1000 Nm3)

Co-produced oil

(Sm3)

2008

* 96

-

-

2009

* 142

-

-

2010

* 318

-

-

2011

* 316

-

-

2012

* 495

-

-

2013

* 993

-

-

2014

1,509

3,267

429

2015

2,417

4,378

186

2016

** 2,792

7,670

130

2017

3,042

8,100

31

2018

3,714

10,676

0

2019

5,578

12,772

0

2020

6,199

11,115

0

*    Figure derived from: Hernieuwbare energie in Nederland 2013. Statistics Netherlands, The Hague/Heerlen, 2014. ISBN: 978-90-357-1857-9.
-     No value reported
**  Adjustment of reported figure in Natural resources and geothermal energy in the Netherlands, Annual review 2016.